Mango is a juicy stone fruit (drupe) belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees, cultivated mostly for edible fruit. The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. They all belong to the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to South Asia,from where it has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most cultivated fruits in the tropics.
While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, Mangifera foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, —the “common mango” or “Indian mango”—is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only accepted species in the genus Cocos.The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. The spelling cocoanut is an archaic form of the word.The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning “head” or “skull”, from the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.
Coconuts are known for their great versatility, as evidenced by many traditional uses, ranging from food to cosmetics.They form a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits for their large quantity of “water”, and when immature, they are known as tender-nuts or jelly-nuts and may be harvested for their potable coconut water.
Tiger nut is is a crop of the sedge family widespread across much of the world. It is found in most of the Western Hemisphere, as well as Southern Europe, Africa, Madagascar, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. Historically it has become naturalized in many other regions, including Ukraine, China, Hawaii, Indochina, New Guinea, Java, New South Wales, and various oceanic islands Tiger nut can be found wild, as a weed, or as a crop. Evidence exists for its cultivation in Egypt since the sixth millennium BC, and for several centuries in Southern Europe. In Spain, C. esculentus is cultivated for its edible tubers, called earth almonds or tiger nuts, for the preparation of horchata de chufa, a sweet, milk-like beverage. However, in most other countries, C.esculentus is considered a weed.
Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods or “buns”. The world harvested 4.2 million metric tonnes of sesame seeds in 2013, with India and China as the largest producers.
Sesame seed is one of the oldest oilseed crops known, domesticated well over 3000 years ago. Sesame has many species, most being wild and native to sub-Saharan Africa.
Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, or meska, is a natural gum. It is made of hardened sap from two species of acacia tree; Senegalia (Acacia) senegal and Vachellia (Acacia) seyal. The gum is got from wild trees throughout the Sahel from Senegal to Somalia. In the past it has also been cultivated in Arabia and west Asia.